Уроки русского на английском
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 28.11.2011, 05:47:20 | Сообщение № 41
|Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). For example: |
Я не знаю - I don't know.
Я не понимаю - I don't understand.
Он не понимает - He doesn't understand.
You can also form questions:
Ты знаешь? - Do you know?
Ты понимаешь? - Do you understand?
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 28.11.2011, 05:47:50 | Сообщение № 42
|The second conjugation |
Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation.
Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation.
The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"), which replace "ить".
Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules.
Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. Remember, this only applies to the first-person singular (Я).
говорить - To speak. (infinitive, dictionary form)
Я говорю - I speak.
Ты говоришь - You speak.
Он, Она, Оно говорит - He, She, It Speaks.
Мы говорим - We speak.
Вы говорите - You speak.
Они говорят - They speak.
слышать - To hear.
слышу - I hear.
слышишь - You hear.
слышит - He, She, It hears.
слышим - We hear.
слышите - You hear.
слышат - They hear.
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 28.11.2011, 05:48:26 | Сообщение № 43
|For Example: |
Я говорю по-английски - I speak English
Он говорит по-русски - He speaks Russian
Вы говорите по-русски? - Do you speak Russian?
Мы не говорим по-русски - We don't speak Russian.
Собака не говорит по-английски - The dog doesn't speak English.
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 28.11.2011, 05:48:50 | Сообщение № 44
|Irregular Verbs |
There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules). However, often once you know the stem of the verb, you can often predict the endings. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above.
Ехать - To go (by transport).
Я еду - I go (by transport).
Ты едешь - You go (by transport).
Он, Она, Оно едет - He, She, It goes (by transport).
Мы едем - We go (by transport).
Вы едете - You go (by transport).
Они едут - They go (by transport).
Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction, except that "у" replaces "ю".
Жить - To live.
Я живу - I live.
Ты живёшь - You live.
Он, Она, Оно живёт - He, She, It lives.
Мы живём - We live.
Вы живёте - You live.
Они живут - They live.
Notice that "ё" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending.
Я живу в Лондоне - I live in London.
Он едет домой - He is going home
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:21:48 | Сообщение № 45
Noun - A noun is a thing, name or place. Example: dog, cat, Moscow, cup, paper, pen.
Cases - Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. In English we do this by having a strict word-order. In Russian we use 6 cases.
Vowel - Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. The letters А, Я, Э, Е, У, Ю, О, Ё, Ы, И and Й. (A,E,I,O,U in English).
Consonant - A letter that is not a vowel. (Except ь, ъ because they have no sound).
Gender of nouns.
In Russian, as with many other languages, each noun is assigned a gender. Russian has three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter (neutral). In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. In the case of other objects like “pen”, “cup”, “house”, there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. Luckily, unlike many languages, in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them.
When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence, it will be in its dictionary form. In this form you can easily work out it’s gender. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. From the dictionary form of a noun, here is how you can tell what the gender is:
1. Look at the last letter of the word:
2. If it is a consonant, or “й”, the word is masculine.
3. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine.
4. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter.
5. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine.
There are very few exceptions to these rules. But there are five notable exceptions, this occurs mainly because of physical gender.
Папа - (Daddy, Papa) - Is Masculine
Дядя - (Uncle) - Is Masculine
Дедушка - (Grandfather) - Is Masculine
Мужчина - (Man) - Is Masculine
Кофе - (Coffee) - Is Masculine
Masculine : паспорт (passport), документ (document), брат (brother), Хлеб (bread).
Feminine : газета (newspaper), Россия (Russia), Дочь (daughter)
Neuter : здание (building), радио (radio), письмо (letter)
Cases in Russian
Russian grammar uses the case system. The case system is also used in languages like Latin, Greek and German. In fact it was also used in Old English. In Russian there are six cases. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English...
In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. For example...
‘Ivan gives flowers to Anna’. (Иван даёт цветы Анне)
In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words ‘Ivan’ and ‘flowers’. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words, and still keep the same meaning. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. The Russian word’s position is not so important because it’s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it’s case. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. Lets look at the six cases (You don’t need to remember this yet):
Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. (“Ivan”)
Accusative case: The object of the sentence. (“flowers”)
Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”)
Genitive case: Indicates ownership. (Eg. “Anna’s flowers”)
Instrumental case: Indicates ‘with’ or ‘by means of’. (“Anna writes with a pencil”)
Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. (In, on, at, and about.)
For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be:
Nominative case: Анна
Accusative case: Анну
Dative case: Анне (to Anna)
Genitive case: Анны (Anna’s)
Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna)
Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna)
We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don’t worry too much now. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence.
Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian, so we will take it slowly. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you, and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar.
It’s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar.
Interestingly, some remnants of the case system still exist in English, especially pronouns. For example we must use ‘me’ instead of ‘I’ when not the subject.
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:22:27 | Сообщение № 46
|The Nominative Case. (The subject of a sentence) |
The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. In the sentence “I love her”, the word “I” is the subject. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns, so there is nothing special to learn here.
The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. In Russian, in the nominative case, you make a plural by using the letters “и”, “ы”, “я” or “а”.
For masculine nouns:
If the word ends in a consonant, add “ы”.
Replace “й” with “и”
Replace “ь” with “и”
For feminine nouns:
Replace “а” with “ы”
Replace “я” with “и”
Replace “ь” with “и”
For neuter nouns:
Replace “о” with “а”
Replace “е” with “я”
студент becomes: студенты (student - students)
газета becomes: газеты (newspaper - newspapers)
здание becomes: здания (building - buildings)
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:23:18 | Сообщение № 47
|The Accusative Case. (The object of a sentence) |
To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”, you need to use the accusative case also. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence, in this case the word “dog”. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. Russian uses the case for all nouns.
Russian is very free about word order. For example, in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence, without changing the actual meaning. This doesn’t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. However, in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English.
Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal, not plants). An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object.
Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form.
1. If the noun in inanimate, there is no change.
2. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant, add “а”.
3. If noun is animate, replace “й”, with “я”.
4. If noun is animate, replace “ь”, with “я”.
1. Replace “а” with “у”.
2. Replace “я” with “ю”.
1. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate).
спорт remains: спорт (sport)
музыка becomes: музыку(music)
Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow)
газета becomes: газету(newspaper)
здание remains: здание(building)
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:24:43 | Сообщение № 48
|To Love |
Let's start with the Russian verb "to love":
Любить (Люблю, Любишь) (View Conjugations)
Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. Here are some uses of the word:
Я люблю спорт - I love sport.
Я люблю музыку - I love music.
Я не люблю музыку - I don't like music.
Ты любишь музыку? - Do you love music?
Я люблю Москву - I love Moscow.
Он любит Москву - He loves Moscow.
Иван любит чай - Ivan loves tea.
Надя любит вино - Nadya loves wine.
Надя не любит вино - Nadya doesn't like wine.
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:25:22 | Сообщение № 49
|"I love you" in Russian |
You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you'
Я тебя люблю - I love you.
This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя. Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. Remember to select the pronoun to match the case:
Я его люблю - I love him.
Я её люблю - I love her.
Она любит меня - She loves me
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:25:44 | Сообщение № 50
The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". You can use it to form questions.
Что ты любишь? - What do you love?
However, if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence, it is probably the conjunction "that". The word "Что" has two uses, so don't be confused. An example could be:
Я знаю, что ты любишь музыку. - I know that you love music.
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:26:09 | Сообщение № 51
|Using other Russian verbs |
To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now. If you would like, you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here.
Смотреть - to watch.
Читать - to read.
Слушать - to listen
Изучать - to study
Думать - to think
Работать - to work
Хотеть - to want
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:26:36 | Сообщение № 52
|Here are some possible uses of these verbs: |
Я смотрю телевизор - I am watching television.
Я слушаю радио - I am listening to the radio.
Я слушаю музыку - I am listening to music.
Я читаю журнал - I am reading a magazine.
Я читаю газету - I am reading the newspaper
Я читаю книгу - I am reading a book.
Я изучаю русский язык - I study Russian. (lit: I study the Russian language).
Я так думаю - I think so!
Как вы думаете? - What do you think? (lit: How do you think?)
Я хочу чай - I want tea.
Что вы хотите? - What do you want?
Sometime you will want to talk about an action. For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row. In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form. For example:
Я люблю читать - I love to read.
Я люблю путешествовать - I love to travel.
Я хочу купить журнал - I want to buy a magazine.
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:26:57 | Сообщение № 53
A very useful Russian word is the word for "very". You can include it into many phrases. It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. For example:
Очень - very. (or really)
Я очень люблю спорт - I really love sport.
Я очень люблю Москву - I really love Moscow.
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:27:17 | Сообщение № 54
|Question Words |
You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.
Где? - Where?
Кто? - Who?
Что? - What?
Как? - How?
Почему? - Why?
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:28:52 | Сообщение № 55
|In this lesson we will introduce the prepositional case. It will also attempt to expand your vocabulary to include a number of places. The prepositional case is one of the easiest Russian cases to learn. It is also one of the most useful. It will allow you to expand your use of Russian phrases to include useful phrases like “I live in Russia”. The prepositional case has no meaning of it’s own. It is simply used after certain Russian prepositions. Afterwards we will introduce you to the Russian words for ‘to go’. |
The prepositional case is used after the prepositions “в” (in), “на” (on/at), “о” (about).
Forming the prepositional case
To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word:
1. Add : “е”.
2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”)
1. Replace “а” with “е”.
2. Replace “я” with “е”.
3. Replace “ь” with “и”.
4. Exception: Replace “ия”, it becomes “ии”
1. Replace “о” with “е”
2. “е” remains unchanged.
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:29:44 | Сообщение № 56
|Using prepositions and the prepositional case. |
As with any language, Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. Here are some tips to help you, although these aren’t precise rules.
The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”, when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. (Eg. ‘at school’)
The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. (Eg. ‘at work’, ‘at a station’, ‘at a concert’).
Now you can easily tell people where you live:
Где вы живёте? - Where do you live?
Я живу в Москве - I live in Moscow.
Я живу в Лондоне - I live in London.
Я живу в Петербурге - I live in St. Petersburg.
Я живу в Сибири - I live in Siberia.
As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities, suburbs and places, even though they are not Russian.
You can also describe where something or someone is:
Где она? - Where is she?
на вокзале - at the station
на почте - at the post office
в саду - in the garden
в лесу - in the forest
на улице - on the street
Что на столе? - What is on the table?
На столе книга и карандаш - On the table is a book and a pencil.
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:30:11 | Сообщение № 57
|Other Places |
Here are some names of other useful places. (They are in dicionary form)
кино - cinema
театр - theatre
аптека - pharmacy
парк - park
стадион - stadium
школа - school
работа - work
библиотека - library
кафе - cafe
площадь - square
ресторан - restaurant
банк - bank
гостиница - hotel
музей - museum
больница - hospital
квартира - apartment
дом - house, home
университет - university
The following locations are always preceded by 'на' instead of 'в' when describing location or motion towards.
север - north
юг - south
восток - east
запад - west
вокзал - station (usually large train stations)
станция - station (smaller train and tram stations)
завод - factory
концерт - concert
площадь - square
работа - work
рынок - market
стадион - stadium
улица - street
почте - post office
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:30:35 | Сообщение № 58
|Location and Direction |
Sometimes, prepositions have more than one meaning, you can tell this by the case. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)), your answer will involve the prepositional case. However, when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to), you would use the accusative case. Here are some examples for you to compare.
Куда вы идёте - Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction)
Я иду в школу - I am going to school.
Где вы работаете? - Where do you work? (Indicates a location)
Я работаю в школе - I work at (in) a school.
Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia.
прямо - Straight ahead.
налево - To the left.
направо - To the right.
прямо потом направо - Straight ahead then to the right.
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:31:09 | Сообщение № 59
|Going Places in Russian |
In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”. The first indicates you are going on foot, the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. Both these words are verbs of motion, and are grammatically quite complex, but as these words are so important for basic Russian, we will introduce them now in a simple way. A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage
Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. The first indicates ‘to go in one direction’, the second indicates ‘to go in more than one direction’ or to ‘go somewhere repetitively’. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English. So to express ‘to go’ in Russian, there are actually four ways:
Идти - To go on foot, in one direction.
(Я иду, Ты идёшь, Он идёт, Мы идём, Вы идёте, Они идут)
Я иду в школу - I am going to school.
Я иду в кино - I am going to the cinema.
Ты идёшь в кино? - Are you going to the cinema?
Он идёт в гостиницу - He is going to the hotel.
Мы идём в кафе - We are going to the cafe.
я иду в университет - I am going to the university
Ходить - To go on foot, in more than one direction, or repetitively.
(Я хожу, Ты ходишь, Он ходит, Мы ходим, Вы ходите, Они ходят )
Я хожу в школу - I go to school.
Я часто хожу в кино - I often go to the cinema
Мы ходим в кафе каждый день - We go to the cafe every day.
Ехать - To go by transport, in one direction.
(Я еду, Ты едешь, Он едет, Мы едем, Вы едете, Они едут )
Я еду в школу - I am going to school. (by transport)
Я еду в кино на метро - I am going to the cinema on the metro.
Он едет в гостиницу на такси - He is going to the hotel by taxi.
Мы едем в кафе - We are going to the cafe. (by transport)
Он едет в Лондон - He is going to London
Ездить - To go by transport, in more than one direction, or repetitively
(Я езжу, Ты ездишь , Он ездит , Мы ездим, Вы ездите, Они ездят)
Он часто ездит в Лондон - He often goes to London
Я езжу в театр каждый день - I go to the theatre every day.
Они часто ездят в Амстердам - They often go to Amsterdam
(65499) Вне сайтаДата: 07.03.2012, 22:32:09 | Сообщение № 60
|In our next Russian lesson will introduce words and phrases associated with families. This will allow you to talk about your family, which is a very popular topic of conversation in Russia. One of the important concepts that we will introduce in this lesson is possessive pronouns. Possesive pronouns are words such as: my, your, his, her, and our. Personal pronouns are normally used to indicate the ownership of an object. The other method to indicate ownership is to use the genative case. |
Russian Family Words
Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family:
Мать - mother
Отец - father
Мама - mum
Папа - dad
Сестра - sister
Брат - brother
Дочь - daughter
Сын - son
бабушка - grandmother
Дедушка - grandfather
Жена - wife
Муж - husband
Тётя - auntie
Дядя - uncle
Родители - parents
Дети - children
Внучка - granddaughter
Внук - grandson
Семья - family
Just like English, in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father. For example we use the words mum and dad. Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents.