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Форум » Досуг » Изучаем языки » Английский » Уроки русского на английском
Уроки русского на английском
ingvarr
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Дата: 21.11.2011, 04:01:10 | Сообщение № 21
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Spelling Rule 1.

There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А".

It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.

A note about stress.


In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes.

Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it’s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it’s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.)

Take notice of the following examples:
До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word).

Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba".

Да (yes) - Pronounced "da".

Нет (no) - Pronounced "nyet".

сто (100) - Pronounced "sto".

Пока (Bye)

Плохо (Bad)

Хорошо (Good)
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ingvarr
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Дата: 21.11.2011, 04:01:38 | Сообщение № 22
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Some Listening Practice

There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer.

There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters.

Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music)

шесть книг - (six books)

семь газет - (seven newspapers)

восемь зданий - (eight buildings)

девять собак - (nine dogs)

десять студентов - (ten students)

сто рублей - (one hundred roubles)

сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
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ingvarr
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Дата: 21.11.2011, 04:03:08 | Сообщение № 23
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The next step in learning Russian is to learn the Russian numbers. Once you learn the Russian numbers you will find it much easier doing things like shopping, or catching a train or tram. You will be able to understand when people give you the price of something. We will start with the numbers 1-10.

Russian numbers: 1 to 10

1 - один ("a-deen")

2 - два ("dva")

3 - три ("tree")

4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye")

5 - пять ("pyat")

6 - шесть ("shest")

7 - семь ("syem")

8 - восемь ("vo-syem")

9 - девять ("dyev-yat")

10 - десять ("dyes-yat")

Russian numbers: 11 to 19

Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.

11 - одиннадцать

12 - двенадцать

13 - тринадцать

14 - четырнадцать

15 - пятнадцать

16 - шестнадцать

17 - семнадцать

18 - восемнадцать

19 - девятнадцать

Russian numbers: 20 and onwards

As you could see, the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9. (You will need to drop the soft sign, or the "е" in "четыре")

20 in Russian is "двадцать". The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English. Here are some examples:

20 - двадцать

21 - двадцать один

22 - двадцать два

23 - двадцать три

24 - двадцать четыре

Other compound numbers are formed in the same way, quite similar to English. (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian). Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia. It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.

30 - тридцать

40 - сорок

50 - пятьдесят

60 - шестьдесят

70 - семьдесят

80 - восемьдесят

90 - девяносто

100 - сто

200 - двести

300 - триста

400 - четыреста

500 - пятьсот

600 - шестьсот

700 - семьсот

800 - восемьсот

900 - девятьсот

1,000 - тысяча

1,000,000 - миллион

1,000,000,000 - миллиард

For example: 131 - сто тридцать один

When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.

0 - ноль
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ingvarr
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Дата: 21.11.2011, 04:08:55 | Сообщение № 24
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Now that you understand the Russian letters and numbers, we will begin to learn some basic Russian phrases that you will commonly use as part of everyday communication. We will not attempt to introduce any grammar in this lesson. It is more important to learn some basic communication skills in Russian. Once you have a 'feel' for the language, you will find it easier to understand how the grammar works. When you were young, you learnt to speak before you learnt the grammar. We feel it is easier to learn Russian the same way, however don’t worry, we will cover grammar in later lessons. In this lesson you will learn the Russian language basics.

When you are in Russia it is important to realise that Russians have two manners of speaking, formal or friendly. It would be considered slightly rude to use the wrong form in the wrong situation. Use the friendly (or familiar) form when you are speaking to someone you consider a friend. In situations where you have never met the person before you would use the formal form, for example in shops or with taxi drivers. You would also use the formal form as a sign of respect to teachers, or in places like business meetings. Keep this in mind as you work through these Russian lessons. This is much easier than it sounds, as there are only a couple of words that change. (Mainly the Russian word for “you”.)

Please and Thank-You.

The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite.

Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") - Thank-You

Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") - Please (and You're Welcome)

The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome", after somebody says thank-you. You should always say this after someone thanks you. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written, you can basically forget the "уй".

Yes and No.

Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".

Да ("da") - Yes

Нет ("nyet") - No

Saying Hello.

When you are in Russia and you meet somebody, the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". There are two forms of this word.

Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") - Hello (Formal)

Привет ("pree-vyet") - Hi (Informal)

Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first, but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it. Привет is also commonly used with friends. However, keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English), and should only be used with friends. If somebody says Привет to you, then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone.
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ingvarr
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Дата: 21.11.2011, 04:09:12 | Сообщение № 25
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Introducing Yourself.

In order to introduce yourself, you may need the following phrases.

Меня зовут ... ("min-ya za-voot") - My name is ...

Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") - What is your name?

Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") - Pleased to meet you.
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ingvarr
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Дата: 21.11.2011, 04:09:35 | Сообщение № 26
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How are you?

The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?"

Как дела? - How are things?

Хорошо спасибо - Good/Well thank-you

Плохо - Bad
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ingvarr
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Saying Good-Bye.

There are also two words for saying good-bye.

До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") - Good-bye. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word)

Пока ("pa-ka") - Bye (Informal, slang)

You should generally use до свидания, which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. You may also hear people say Пока, but we suggest you only use it with friends.
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ingvarr
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Asking about languages

When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian, there is no difference between the question and the statement, except for the question mark. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question. If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. If all else fails, put a real questioning expression on your face.

Вы говорите по-английски? - Do you (formal) speak English?

Вы говорите по-русски? - Do you (formal) speak Russian?

Я говорю по-английски - I speak English

Я говорю по-русски - I speak Russian

Я понимаю - I understand

Я не понимаю - I don't understand
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ingvarr
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Дата: 21.11.2011, 04:14:19 | Сообщение № 29
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Finding a cafe

After a busy day in Russia, you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink. You could ask people with the following phrases.

Скажите, пожалуйста.... - Tell me please....

Скажите, пожалуйста, где кафе? - Tell me please, where is a cafe?

Скажите, пожалуйста, где бар? - Tell me please, where is a bar?

Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”, so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.

Скажите, пожалуйста, где ближайшее кафе? - Tell me please, where is the nearest cafe?
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ingvarr
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Дата: 21.11.2011, 04:38:25 | Сообщение № 30
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On the Menu

If you were in a Russian bar or café, here are some words you might see on the menu:

Меню - Menu

Кофе - Coffee

Чай - Tea

Молоко - Milk

Кока-Кола - Coca-Cola

Лимонад - Lemonade

Сок - Juice

Борщ - Russian beetroot soup

Суп - Soup

Торт - Cake

Водка - Vodka

Пиво - Beer

Вино - Wine

Вода - Water
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ingvarr
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Do you have...?

If you want to ask someone if they have something, you can use the following phrase. (Just learn the whole phrase, it is gramatically unusual).

У вас есть ....? - Do you have ....? (formal)
For example:

У вас есть кофе? - Do you have coffee?

У вас есть чай? - Do you have tea?

У вас есть водка? - Do you have vodka?
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ingvarr
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Дата: 21.11.2011, 04:39:23 | Сообщение № 32
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Please give me

When you decide what you will have you will need to order. Here are some Russian phrases you might need, or be asked:

Что? ("shto?") - What?

Что вы хотите? - What do you want?

Я хочу ... - I want...

Дайте, пожалуйста .... - Give me please...

Сколько стоит? - How much is it?.

Examples:

Дайте, пожалуйста, чай. - Please give me tea.

Дайте, пожалуйста, кофе - Please give me coffee.

Дайте, пожалуйста, кофе с молоком - Please give me coffee with milk.

Дайте, пожалуйста, кофе с молоком и с сахаром - Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.
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ingvarr
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What is it?

Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are...

Что это? - What is it?

Это кофе. - It is coffee.

Простите, это кофе. - Excuse me, is it coffee?

Нет, это чай. - No, it is tea.
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ingvarr
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How Much?

The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian. You can use it to ask the price of something.

Сколько? - How much? / How many?

Сколько стоить? - How much does it cost?

двадцать один рубль - 21 rubles.
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ingvarr
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How do you say?

Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. Here are some useful phrases...

Как сказать "...." по-русски? - How do you say "...." in Russian?

Что значит "...." на английском? - What does "...." mean in English?
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ingvarr
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Where is the toilet...?

To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is.

Скажите, Пожалуйста , Где Туалет - Tell me please, where is the toilet?

The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M".
The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж".
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ingvarr
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Дата: 28.11.2011, 05:40:36 | Сообщение № 37
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Now that you have learnt some basic Russian phrases, it is time to start forming your own Russian sentences. To do this you need to learn about Russian verbs and pronouns. This lesson will enable you to start forming short Russian sentences. When you are learning to speak Russian it is easiest to start by just using short sentences. Often you can break a long sentence into several short ones. This is a long lesson, and introduces some of the most difficult concepts in Russian. So don't worry if you need to go slow, or it takes some time to understand at first. You can always come back and review this lesson. When you have completed this lesson you will have taken a major step forward in understanding Russian grammar.

Definitions

Verbs are action words, they are things you can do. For example: run, walk, love, eat, want.

Pronouns are words that can replace names. For example: I, you, he, she, him, her, it.

In the sentence "I love him". "love" is the verb. The subject is "I", and the object is "him".

Russian Pronouns
Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence. (Known as the nominative case.)

Я - I

Ты - You (informal)

Он - He, It (m)

Она - She, It (f)

Оно - It (n)

Мы - We

Вы - You (formal, or plural)

Они - They

Вы is used as the formal singular "you", and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person.
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ingvarr
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Дата: 28.11.2011, 05:44:39 | Сообщение № 38
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Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. (Known as the accusative case)

Меня - Me

Тебя - You (informal)

Его - ("yevo") - Him, It (m,n)

Её - Her, It (f)

Нас - Us

Вас - You (formal, or plural)

Их - Them

You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). Just remember that unlike English,Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". You should memorise these pronouns.
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ingvarr
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Russian Verbs

You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work", "I am working" and "I do work".

Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. This happens a little in English, but not as much. (Example: I work, he works). This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation, and the second conjugation. (There are also some irregular verbs). Both these patterns are quite similar, and once you get the hang of it, it is not too difficult.

The first conjugation

The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". It is the most common.

To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"), and add the appropriate ending ("ю", "ешь", "ет", "ем", "ете" or "ют").Let’s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work).

работать - To work. (infinitive, dictionary form)

Я работаю - I work

Ты работаешь - You work

Он, Она, Оно работает - He, She, It works.

Мы работаем - We work

Вы работаете - You work.

Они работают - They work.
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ingvarr
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Дата: 28.11.2011, 05:46:54 | Сообщение № 40
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Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation:

понимать - To understand. (infinitive, dictionary form)

Я понимаю - I understand.

Ты понимаешь - You understand.

Он, Она, Оно понимает - He, She, It understands

Мы понимаем - We understand.

Вы понимаете - You understand.

Они понимают - They understand.

Знать - To know. (infinitive, dictionary form)

Я знаю - I know.

Ты знаешь - You know.

Он, Она, Оно знает - He, She, It knows.

Мы знаем - We know.

Вы знаете - You know.

Они знают - They know.
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